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1966, Ford Mustang GT 350
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Pasting from Wikipedia: Ford Mustang (1st generation):
Conception and Styling
As Lee Iacocca‘s assistant general manager and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey, was the head engineer for the Mustang project — supervising the development of the Mustang in a record 18 months[three] — even though Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager. The Mustang prototype was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine roadster, styled in portion by Phil Clark. Stylist John Najjar, in a 1984 interview with David R. Crippen, archivist of the Henry Ford Museum spoke about the genesis of the two-seat prototype:
We had a studio below Bob Maguire,and in it were Jim Darden, Ray Smith, plus an artist, Phil Clark, several modelers, and me. We drew up a two-seater sports automobile in competitors with the other studios, and when they saw ours – saw the blackboard with a complete-sized layout and sketches- they said, ‘That’s it! Let’s create it.’ So we created a clay model, developed the particulars, and then built a fiberglass prototype." This automobile was basically a idea study rather than the final configuration, but it included a lot of the sporty, rakish flair the later showcar embodied.
The Mustang I was later remodeled as a 4-seat automobile styled under the direction of Project Design Chief Joe Oros and his team of L. David Ash, Gale Halderman, and John Foster — in Ford’s Lincoln–Mercury Division design studios, which made the winning style in an intramural style contest instigated by Iacocca.
The style team had been provided five targets for the design of the Mustang: it would seat 4, have bucket seats and a floor mounted shifter, weigh no much more than 2500 pounds and be no more than 180 inches in length, sell for much less than 00, and have several power, comfort and luxury choices.
Getting set the design standards for the Mustang, Oros stated:
I told the team that I wanted the auto to appeal to girls, but I wanted males to wish it, also. I wanted a Ferrari-like front finish, the motif centered on the front – a thing heavy-seeking like a Maseratti, but, please, not a trident – and I wanted air intakes on the side to cool the rear brakes. I stated it must be as sporty as possible and look like it was connected to European style.
I then known as a meeting with all the Ford studio designers. We talked about the sporty vehicle for most of that afternoon, setting parameters for what it ought to appear like — and what it ought to not appear like — by creating lists on a significant pad, a approach I adapted from the management seminar. We taped the lists up all around the studio to keep ourselves on track. We also had photographs of all the previous sporty automobiles that had been completed in the Corporate Advanced studio as a guide to themes or suggestions that were tired or not acceptable to management.
Within a week we had hammered out a new design. We cut templates and fitted them to the clay model that had been began. We cut correct into it, adding or deleting clay to accommodate our new theme, so it wasn’t like beginning all over. But we knew Lincoln-Mercury would have two models. And Advanced would have 5, some they had previously shown and modified, plus a couple extras. But we would only have one particular model due to the fact Ford studio had a production schedule for a great a lot of facelifts and other projects. We couldn’t afford the manpower, but we created up for lost time by operating around the clock so our model would be ready for the management evaluation.
L. David Ash is usually credited with the actual styling of the Mustang. Ash, in a 1985 interview speaking of the origin of the Mustang design, when asked the degree of his contribution, stated:
I would say substantial. Nevertheless, any individual that says they designed the car by themselves, is wrong. Iacocca didn’t design it. He conceived it. He’s known as the father of it, and, in that respect, he was. I did not style it in total, nor did Oros. It was created by a design group. You appear at the photograph taken at the award banquet for the Industrial Designers’ Society exactly where the Mustang received the medal it’s got Damon Woods in it (the group that did the interior), and Charlie Phaneuf (who was with Damon), and it’s got myself and John Foster (who was with me), it is got (John) Najjar in it.
So nobody really did the vehicle, as such. Iacocca in his book flat out comes and says I did the vehicle. It really is right there in print, "It’s Dave Ash’s Mustang." Bordinat will tell you I did the vehicle. This book tells you I did the car, but, in actual reality, I had a lot of help, and I don’t assume any person ever does a automobile by himself, not in these occasions anyway.
To decrease development charges, the Mustang utilized chassis, suspension, and drivetrain components derived from the Ford Falcon and Fairlane. It employed a unitized platform-variety frame from the 1964 Falcon, and welded box-section side rails, including welded crossmembers. Though hardtop Mustangs accounted for the highest sales, durability troubles with the new frame led to the engineering of a convertible very first, which ensured sufficient stiffness. General length of the Mustang and Falcon was identical, even though the Mustang’s wheelbase was slightly shorter. With an general width of 68.2 inches (1,732 mm), it was two.4 inches (61 mm) narrower, but the wheel track was almost identical. Shipping weight, roughly two,570 pounds (1,170 kg) with the straight six-cylinder engine, was also equivalent to the Falcon. A totally-equipped V8 model weighed around 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg). Though most of the mechanical parts were from the Falcon, the Mustang’s physique was entirely different sporting a shorter wheelbase, wider track, lower seating position and lower general height. An sector very first, the "torque box" was an innovative structural technique that significantly stiffened the Mustang’s construction and helped contribute to better handling.
Since it was introduced five months ahead of the regular begin of the production year and manufactured amongst 1964 Ford Falcons and 1964 Mercury Comets, the earliest Mustangs are extensively referred to as the 1964½ model. A much more accurate description is the "early 1965" model due to the fact it underwent substantial changes at the beginning of the typical model year. All the early automobiles, however, were marketed by Ford as 1965 models. The low-finish model hardtop utilised a "V-code" 170 cu in (two.8 L) straight-6 engine and 3-speed manual transmission and retailed for US$ 2,368.
Numerous modifications to the Mustang occurred at the start off of the normal 1965 model year production, 5 months immediately after its introduction. These cars are recognized as "late 65’s," and were built following factory retooling in August 1964. The engine lineup was changed, with a 200 cu in (three.3 L) "T-code" engine that produced 120 hp (89 kW). Production of the "L-code" 260 cu in (four.three L) engine ceased when the 1964 model year ended. It was replaced with a new 200 hp (150 kW) "C-code" 289 cu in (4.7 L) engine with a two-barrel carburetor as the base V8. An "A-code" 225 hp (168 kW) 4-barrel carbureted version was subsequent in line, followed by the unchanged "Hi-Po" "K-code" 271 hp (202 kW) 289. The DC electrical generator was replaced by a new AC alternator on all Fords (the quickest way to distinguish a 1964 from a 1965 is to see if the alternator light on the dash says "GEN" or "ALT"). The now-famous Mustang GT (Gran – Touring) was introduced as the "GT Equipment Package" and included a V8 engine (most usually the 225 hp (168 kW) 289), grille-mounted fog lamps, rocker panel stripes, and disc brakes. A 4-barrel carbureted engine was now accessible with any physique style. Furthermore, reverse lights had been an alternative added to the car in 1965. The Mustang was originally accessible as either a hardtop or convertible, but for the duration of the car’s early design phases a fastback model was strongly thought of. The Mustang two+2 fastback created its inaugural debut with its swept-back rear glass and distinctive ventilation louvers.
The regular interior attributes of the 1965 Mustang included adjustable driver and passenger bucket seats, an AM radio, and a floor mounted shifter in a range of color options. Ford added added interior options for the duration of the 1965 model year. The Interior Decor Group was popularly identified as "Pony Interior" due to the addition of embossed operating ponies on the seat fronts, and also included integral armrests, woodgrain appliqué accents, and a round gauge cluster that would replace the normal Falcon instrumentation. Also available had been sun visors, a (mechanical) remote-operated mirror, a floor console, and a bench seat. Ford later provided an beneath-dash air-conditioning unit, and discontinued the vinyl with cloth insert seat solution, provided only in early 1965 models.
A single alternative designed strictly for enjoyable was the Rally-Pac. Introduced in 1963 immediately after Ford’s good results at that year’s Monte Carlo Rally and available on other Ford and Mercury compacts and intermediates, the Rally-Pac was a mixture clock and tachometer mounted to the steering column. It was offered as a factory ordered item for US.30. Installed by a dealer, the Rally-Pac cost US.95. Reproductions are presently available from any quantity of Mustang restoration parts sources.
The 1966 Mustang debuted with moderate trim modifications which includes a new grille, side ornamentation, wheel covers and gas cap. An automatic transmission for the "Hi-Po," a huge number of new paint and interior color alternatives, an AM/eight-track sound technique, and a single of the very first AM/FM mono automobile radios were also supplied. It also removed the Falcon instrument cluster the previously optional attributes, which includes the round gauges and padded sun visors, became regular equipment. The Mustang convertible would be the very best-selling in 1966, with 72,119 sold, beating the quantity two Impala by virtually two:1.
The 1965 and 1966 Mustangs are differentiated by variations in the exterior, despite equivalent style. These variations contain the emblem on the quarter-panels behind the doors. In 1965 the emblem was a single vertical piece of chrome, even though in 1966 the emblem was smaller in height and had three horizontal bars extending from the design, resembling an "E". The front intake grilles and ornaments had been also diverse. The 1965 front grille utilized a "honeycomb" pattern, although the 1966 version was a "slotted" style. Even though both model years employed the "Horse and Corral" emblem on the grille, the 1965 had 4 bars extending from each side of the corral, even though on the 1966, these bars had been removed.
When Ford began selling the Mustang in Germany, they discovered a company had already registered the name. The German firm offered to sell the rights for US,000. Ford refused and removed the Mustang badge, instead naming it T-five for the German industry.